Pocket Watch Database

Illinois Watches and Their Makers (1921)

In 1921, the Illinois Watch Company published a promotional booklet titled “Illinois Watches and Their Makers.” The majority of the content included in this publication consists of excerpts from the company’s monthly newspaper, “Doings.” Articles include details regarding how watches are adjusted at the factory, information about how accurate time is derived from the stars at the astronomical observatory, and how Illinois movement #9 was still in active service. The end of the booklet concludes with illustrations and descriptions of the railroad watches offered by the company including the Sangamo Special and the iconic Bunn Special, amongst others. This booklet provides intriguing insight into the inner workings of the Illinois Watch Company during the early 1920s and which watches were being heavily marketed at the time.

Copyright Status: Public Domain (+95 Years)

Acquisition Price: $26.25

Acquisition Date: June 15, 2018

Digitized Date December 09, 2019

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25” 7710\ ILLINOIS WATCHES AND THEIR MAKERS Talks, articles and letters which have appeared in o u r little fadtory paper aswell as in our advertisingliterature. We hope these extrac'ts will prove as interesting to y o u as they are to the more than twelve hundred of us. ILLINOIS WATCH COMPANY SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS A ILLINOIS WATCHES AND {THEIR MAKERS A Half Century Of Illinois Watches To survive and grow through the years an industry must produce and deliver merchandise of superior merit. To continue to produce such merchandise requires the hearty and loyal co-operation of a highly trained and efficient corps of workers who realize that the success of an industry, as a Whole, depends upon the faithful performance of the duties assigned to each. That the Illinois Watch Company, which is n o w rounding out the fiftieth year of its existence, has had such a loyal organi‐ zation and has produced such superior merchandise, is evident, not only from the constantly growing demand for its product, but from the steadily'increasing size of its plant, aswill be seen from the foregoing illustration. The company’s first building is shown immediately back of the flag staff on the new building. This was erected in 1870 and for some time housed all the departments of the original Springfield Watch Company. In May, 1871, under the presidency of J. T. Stuart, the Springfield Watch Company began the manufacture of watch parts and in January, 1872, the first watches were completed. These were 18 size, full plate and key wind. In 1873 the company had 125 employees and made five watch movements a day. The panic of 1873 found the newly organized company with a hundred thousand dollar stock of watch movements on hand, but no funds. To tide over this period it borrowed to the limit on thin stock of watches and issued an additional $50,000 wOrth of preferred stock. B u t the business languished and, as the stock‐ holders refused to finance it any further, their investment was a total loss. A reorganization was effected in 1875. This time the busi‐ ness was incorporated as the Illinois-Springfield Watch Company with an authorized capital of $250,000, of which $110,000 was paid in. The n e w organization took over the assets of the former company and assumed its liabilities, amounting to $100,000. The central building‐the one With the square roof‐and the south wing of the old factory were erected shortly afterward. Under the presidency of Gen. E. N. Bates the Illinois-Spring‐ field Watch Company began the manufacture of stem wind movements for men and both key and stem wind watches for women. In a short time the production amounted to 100 move‐ ments a day, but the business was not successful and steadily continued to lose money, which necessitated another reorganiza‐ tion in 1878. The third companywas and still is known as the Illinois Watch Company and has been under the same management for over forty-two years. Jacob Bunn was elected president in 1878 and continued in the direction of the business until his death in 1897, when he was succeeded by his son, Jacob Bunn. The pro‐ gressive policy adopted by the third management has been maintained to date. 8 g , The Illinois Watch Company has over 1,200 employees and n o w produces more than 700 high-grade watch movements a day. In 1878 this company manufactured the first open face watch movement made in the United States. In 1879 it made the first nickel watch movement made in America. Up to 1886 it made but two sizes of movements. That year it added two more‐the 4 and 6 sizes. In 1890 it added the 14 and 16 sizes. In 1896 it brought out a n e w thin model 16 size, which became very popular with railroad men everywhere. In 1905 it produced the O and 12 sizes. In 1915 it broughtout the 6/0 size This movement is the size of a quarter dollar Up to 1902 the product of the Illinois Watch Company and its predecessors had been almost altogether cheap and medium grades. In 1903 the making of cheap movements was discon-V tinued, and the company has since confined itself almost entirely to the making of the higher grades in 17, 19, 21 and 23 jewels, and makes a specialty of high-grade railroad movements known everywhere as the Sangamo Special, Bunn Special and the Bunn. The increasingdemand for these high-grade Illinois.Watches has made necessarya number of additions to the factory. In 1910 atwo-story wing‐the one shown at the left of the'birdseye view‐was erected to allow for the expansion of the dial and timing departments. In 1912 a two-story addition was built at the rear of the original main building, and a year or solater this was raised an additional two stories to provide necessary room for the jeweling and finishing departments. In 1913 the astro‐ nomical observatory shown at the right of the illustration was built. This is used not only as an astronomical observatory, but as a wireless station from which the Illinois Watch Company sends out the correct time twice daily for the Central Time Zone. The last addition to the plant was made in 1918 and consists of the four-story office and factory building shown in the fore‐ ground of the illustration. This building is 140 feet in length and 40 in width and is connected with the original building by an 80x30 foot four-story annex. The lower floor of the n e w building is occupied by the plate department; the second is devoted to the offices; the third to the train department, while the timing and adjusting department is located on the fourth floor. to come. Charles DeC‘amp . . . .Machine Herman Burkhart ......Plate Charles B. Nichols ......Dial William Keene ........Train ...................J e w e l i n g J.P.Scharf..........Teaming Oliver Fultz ..........Janitor Wm. M.Clarke..........Stafi Thomas Billington. . .Jeweling Charles H. Munn. ...Finishing Alexander SteinhauserEscape James M. Murray...Springing Miss Margaret Dee. ..Damask Herman H a h n ........Escape George F. Johnson. . .Supt. Wm. F. Freidinger..Finishing Stephen B. Throop. . . .Janitor Robert Finnegan......Escape Fred Bergman . . . . ...JeWeling Wm. H. Wood. . . .Jeweling William Wood .........Train William Sower .....Finishing , George Kinehan .Hospital John J.Walsh........Escape Hugh Bryce ..........,Screw 1878 Cyrus L. Shinkle. . . . .Plate 1879 Maisenbacher.. .Screw 1879 Joseph Phillip Maisenbacher...Screw 1879 E. H. Hood.. . . . .Finishing Mrs. Sarah Corriea..Jeweling 1879 Joseph Silva ........Damask 1880 George J. Haendle.. .Jeweling 1880 John Smurr .............Dial 1880 Frank Gough . . . . .. .Material 1880 James E. Knox. . . . .Escape 1880 John Haendle ......Jeweling 1880 James Hickox . . Fred Clarke . . . . George A. Reisch. . Samuel J. Gordon. ...Jeweling 1881 Charles Schlipf .....Jeweling 1881 John Schlipf . . . . .Jeweling 1881 John Brennan ..........Plate 1881 Mrs. Mollie Bane. . . .Screw 1881 Charles Maurer .Damask 1881 Sarah Sherlow ........Screw 1881 Richard Jones . . . . ...Machine 1881 Clinton E a r l y ...........Dial 1882 .Finishing 1880 .Finishing 1880 .Escape 1881 1882 Wm. H. Birt.......Engraving 1882 Miss Agnes Shouldis....Train 1882 John T. Weisz......Finishing 1882 Miss Margaret Doocy...Train 1882 John Watkins ........Escape 1882 George Scharf ......Jeweling 1882 J.H.Van Hook........Screw 1882 David Jones ............Staff 1882 Herman A. Goetsch.Carpenter 1882 Wm. D. Phillips.......Escape 1883 Wm. Maurer ...........Plate 1883 Rene Louiseau ........Train 1883 Jacob Bunn . . .President 1883 Ed. Gathard ........Jeweling 1883 Herbert L. Shultz...Springing 1883 Wm. Rabenstein ... .Screw 1883 C. Christiansen.......Timing 1883 Sidney Owen ......Finishing 1883 Miss Louisa Hoge...Jeweling 1883 Wm. H. Hibbs.....Asst. Supt. 1884 Miss Agnes McCoubrey.Plate 1884 John Bergman. . . .Jeweling 1884 Louis H. Amundsen..Finishing 1884 Mrs. Mary Phillips..Jewe1ing 1884 Charles McKee . . . . . .Plate 1884 Frank M. Delaney. ..Finishing 1885 Joseph Craft ...........Train 1885 William Chester ..._.Jeweling 1885 John Edwards ......Machine 1886 George 0. Hamel... ..Machine 1887 James M. Keithley. .Fireman 1887 Fred N. Morgan....Secretary 1887 M. F. O’Brien. . . . . .Auditor 1887 Mentor Hatfield . . . . .Plate 1887 Temperature Adjusting Facilities Enlarged The continually increasing demand for the higher grades of Illinois watches has made necessary enlarged and im‐ proved apparatus for making the temperature adjustments. Our former facilities enabled George Furrow . . . . . .Plate 1887 Charles Beck ..........Punch 1887 Charles Radcliffe ......Screw 1887 Axel T. Smith. . . . .Hospital 1887 Miss Harriet Howard..Timing 1887 Hans Swensen . . . . .Timing 1887 Karl Larsen ..........Timing 1887 Charles A. Nass. .Finishing 1887 H e n r y Metz ..........Motion 1887 Frank Vandervoort..Finishing 1887 Herbert Fountain.. .Finishing 1887 Fred Casdorf . . . .Finishing 1887 John O'Brien . . . .Finishing 1887 John Trotter .......Jeweling 1887 Wm. C.Smith..........Train 1888 Paul Hansen Carl Hoff Fred Eifert _ Charles Woodward..Finishing 1888 Miss Emma Fitzgerald........... .................'. F i n i s h i n g 1888 Miss M a r y Bauman.. . .Motion 1888 Miss Laura Ansell. . . .Motion 1888 Miss Barbara Doerfler.Motion 1888 T. A. Somdal........Finishing 1889 Wm. Payran ........Machine 1889 George Paul Wendling.Timing 1889 W. 0. Thiery.......Salesman 1890 Peter Larsen ......Finishing 1890 Walter Chapin . . . . . .Train 1890 Mrs. Emma Loeb....Jeweling 1890 J. W. Armbruster...Salesman 1891 Samuel Hood Oliver Lawrence us to adjust but 360 movements, but with the new cabinets de‐ signed by Messrs. Johnson and DeLong we will be able to adjust 1,000 movements at a time. The l o w temperature cabinet has already been in‐ stalled and the high tempera‐ ture one will be set up in the very near future. Illinois Movement No. 9 Still In Ac’tive Service In her feature story of the the back had this inscription en‐ graved: “A token of love from M o r g a n L. Reese to his stepson, Roland W. Diller, 1872.” It was originally a key wind, but he later Illinois Watch Company, pub‐ had it changed to a stem Wind. He lished in the October 24th issue carried it for m a n y years, and a of the Illinois State Journal, Miss Nellie Browne Duff men‐ tioned that Illinois Watch No. 26 was still being worn by Mr. Frank V. Partridge, of this city. The story of the company and of its achievements proved v e r y interesting to a number of the older residents of Spring‐ field, and among those who gave expression to their pleas‐ ure.and approvalwas Mr.Isaac Diller, who mentioned that he is still carrying Illinois Watch N0. 9. Mr. Diller’s letter contains much of interest to us and we will quote his letter in full: Springfield, Oct. 25, 1920. Dear Miss Duff: ‘ I was greatly interested in y o u r story about the Watch Factory in yesterday’s Journal. In d r i v i n g by there last week and looking at the magnificent group of buildings I had a mental vision of the first wing built in 1870, with the en‐ trance up the wooden steps at the south end, and that part of the illustrationlooksvery natural. few years before his death gave it to me and I am still carrying it every»day. I thought that in congratulating y o u upon the interesting facts given in your article,_Iwould men‐ tion these facts for your informa‐ tion. ISAAC R. DILLER. Mr. Johnson Attends Astronomical Convention , To be one of 315 persons in the United States who are com‐ petent to write acceptable papers on astronomy, astro‐ physics or related branchesof physics, is t h e enviable dis‐ tinction of one of our associ‐ ates, Mr. George F. Johnson. Volume I I I of the Proceed‐ ings of the American Astro‐ nomical Society has reached the office. The officers of the Society are: Professors Pickering of‐ Harvard University Observa‐ tory, Schlesinger of Allegheny Observatory and Campbell of Lick Observatory. In a full In 1872 my father purchased one of the Stuart movements made by page group of these distin‐ the Springfield Watch Factory, then the highest grade manufac‐ tured, and it is No. 9. This makes it one of the first tray of this move‐ ment made. He had it installed in a gold, open-face case and inside guished men we recognize the features of Mr. Johnson, Sup‐ erintendent of the Watch Company and Custodian of the Watch Company Observatory. We werevery glad for the invitation. Promptly at 8 o’clock we assembled at the observatory. Mr. Johnson was there before us and had everything in readiness. Keeping on o u r heavy coats and wraps we ascended to the dome room on the second floor. This was lighted and we had a splendid opportunity to examine the great equatorial telescope whose searching eye pierces the depths of the heavens. This telescope is a wonderful instrument with a lens eight and a half inches in diameter, set in a tube measuring over twelve feet in length. The whole is mounted on a substantial hollow iron pedestal, inside of which there is a clock which automatically keeps the telescope focused on the star or other celestial objects on which it is set. When the instrument and its uses was explained to us, Mr. Johnson said he wanted us to see the m o o n through it Going to one side of the circular room, he pulled two cords which opened the great dome shutters so that we could look out at the wintry sky. But the moon was not in sight. Suddenly we heard a rumbling noise and all of us were more or less startled as we seemingly felt the entire building turning around from west to east. M r . Johnson, seeing o u r surprise, smiled as he pointed to a little lever by meansof which he could turn the great dome around from right to left or the reverse until the opening was turned toward the part of the sky he wished to study. In a moment the moon shone in upon us and the telescope was trained upon it. Each in turn gazed in wonder at the silvery ball, seem‐ ingly suspended by nothing in the depths of space. I t s whole surface was more or'less pitted with immense volcanic craters and r i n g mountains which were clearly visible through‘ this great magnifying lens. The sight of this cold, desolate looking globe made a deep im‐ pression upon all of us. While we were discussing the moon the telescope was trained upon Jupiter, the fiery planet n o w seen in the eastern sky. Jupiter is surrounded by a re‐ markable ;family of satellites which werefirst seen by Galileo in 1610, and these have the dis‐ tion of being the first celestial objects discovered by means of a telescope. Then one of the ladies asked to see the North Star. The dome was moved again and the telescope pointed to a spot far up in the northern heavens. Judge of o u r surprise when we found that the Pole Star is not a single, but a double star. We also learned that the present North Star has not always been and will not always continue to be the Pole Star. Thousands of years hence the great star Vega will be the Pole Star of our planet instead of Polaris, the present one. Near Polaris is the B i g Dipper and Mr. Johnson suggested that we see if we could make out the double star in the handle of it without the use of the telescope. This, he told us, was a test of eyesight among the Arabians, who named these stars Alcor and Mizar. Interest in the Big Dipper naturally led some of the party to ask to have a few of the constellations pointed out to them. As these could not be seen in their entirety through the telescope, we went out upon the balcony surrounding the dome. There in the heavens to the south appeared the belted Orion‐possibly the most glorious constellation in the northern sky. As we gazed at it we were reminded that thousands of years ago it was asked of Job if he could bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion. In the belt of this mighty celestial hero we saw three stars which point to the brightest star in the heavenly vault. This we were told is Sirius‐the Dog Star, the star of ancient lore which, for untold ages, has foretold the annual overflowing of the River Nile with its life giving waters. Thus we passed a most delightful evening and, aswe thanked our host and bade him good-night, we were pleased to be asked to come again. ' United States Nautical Almanac Lists Illinois Watch Company’s Astronomical Observatory The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac has just been received by Mr. Johnson. to many of us, for we find that the United States heads the list with 84. Germany comes next with 33, while Italy ranks third This volume is published by “with 13. England, France and the Nautical Almanac office Of Austria have 10 each. Austra‐ the United States Naval Ob- servatory‘and ln lt we find the Astronomlcal O b s e r v a t o r y Of the 111111015 W a t c h C o m p a n y m e d as N°~ 205 Altogether there are 256 ob‐ servatories throughout the world which are considered of sufficient importance to be listed in this publication. An analysis of the distribu‐ tion of these scientific institu- tions will be a great surprise lia has 7; Canada, 6; Hungary, 5; Ireland, Scotland, Spain, S w i t z e r l a n d a n d Sweden, 4. each; India, Argentine, The Netherlands, Chile, Belgium, and Turkestan, 3 each; Portu‐ gal, Slelly’ China and Japan, 2 each; Algeria, Peru, Greece, Colombla, Cape Of GOOd Hope, . Transvaal, Sardinia, Norway, Denmark, Finland,>Brazil,West Indies, New Zealand, Philip‐ pines, Ecuador, Mexico and Mauritius (Africa), 1 each, Time is a meas‐ u r e of duration. We reckon it in various ways. Take, for instance, a day. This is the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis. With reference to the sun, we call t hi s rotation a solar day; Wi t h reference to a n y fixed star, a sid‐ ereal day. A year, consisting of 36514 days, is the time it takes the earth to make one revolution in its orbit around the sun. The first motion of the earth causes day and night; the sec‐ ond, the changing seasons. These revolutions, then, give us o u r idea of the passage of time. But the sun standard is not an accurate one. F o r six months of the year the sun is south of ‘the equator, while during the other six months it is north of it. Twice in the year‐at the equinoxes‐the sun crosses the equator and we have days and nights of equal length. Twice in the same period the s u n is farthest north and farthest south and we have t h e longest a n d shortest days of the year. Refer‐ ence to a table of sun and clock time will show that on‐ February 10th sun time is 15min‐ utes slow. I May 14th sun time is 4 minutes fast. July 25th sun time is 6 minutes slow. November 2nd suntimeis16min‐ utes fast. In the earlier ages the sun time standard answered every purpose. But it is not suffi‐ ciently accurate for the age in which we live. We must have an unvarying standard‐one that is absolutely the same on every point of the globe. That ’s why we take our time from the stars. Nowletusascertainhow this is done. First, examine this illustration of the trails of the stars in the vicinity of the North Star as they were photo‐ graphed through a largetele‐ scope during an exposure of a little more than an hour. The North Star is not the pole of the heavens, but it is nearly in tained by astronomers every‐ that position. Note how the where. Longitude is reckoned fr'om Greenwich and its meridian is m a r k e d zero. Springfield’s longitude is 89° 38’ 33”, or nearly, 90° west. As there is a difference of one hour in time for points every 15 degrees east or west of Greenwich, o u r Cen‐ tral Standard Time is 6 hours earlier than Greenwich. The exact time on o u r meridian given above is 5 hours, 58 min‐ utes and 34.2 seconds earlier than Greenwich. A l l that is needed, then, to determine local time is to observe the passage of any of the fixed stars over the meridian of Springfield and to note the time of crossing by a Sidereal Clock. The object of the star observation is to de‐ termine the error of the Sid‐ ereal Clock. This done, .the error of the Mean Time Clock is easily found by a simple for‐ mula which reduces Mean Time to Sidereal Time. These observations are made through a transit, a small tele‐ scope set in the east room of the observatory. This instru‐ ment swings on the meridian and can be directed toward any star which crosses it, Whether north, south or over‐ head, as the observatory was stars all seem to revolve around this point. They do this once in every twenty-four hours. This, then, becomes the earth’s standard for accurate time and is the basis of time measure‐ ments at all astronomical ob‐ servatories. The one most fa‐ miliar to us is located at Green‐ wich, England, where the true sidereal or star time is calcu‐ lated from the host of fixed stars which cross that meridian. The time each star crosses the meridian of Greenwich is r e ‐ corded in a volume called “ T h e Ephemeris” and can be ob‐ built with openings for this purpose. In the eyepiece of the tran‐ sit we find 'a series of vertical spider lines, as well as several horizontal ones. The observer turns the telescope to the alti‐ tude where the particular star he has in mind will cross the meridian. As the star crosses the various spider lines he touches the k e y shown in the f r o n t of the'instrument. This key is connected with the chro‐ nograph which records Sidereal Time by one pen while the other pen records the time of the star’s crossing of our me‐ ridan. Each span marked by these pens on the chronograph is a half inch in length and measures just a second of time. Each time the key is touched to record the crowing of a star the pen connected with the key “jumps.” When the observa‐ tion is concluded, the space between the marks made by in turn supply the standard the Sidereal Clock pen and the which is so rigidly followed observation pen are measured by a rule divided into hun‐ dredths of an inch. As each Experts Treat Black Alders corner of the punch roombuild‐ ing, while a number of cement fillings were put into the European black alders growing in front of the n e w building. These black alders are said by these experts to be very rare The Davey tree experts have been working on some of the trees in the Watch Factory grounds. Two large branches were removed from the large sycamore tree located at the in this country. pen covers a half inch of space in a second, -a difference of 1/100 of an inch between the “jumps” indicates that the Sidereal Clock is just 2/100 of a second fast or slow. These observations are taken daily and afford an unvarying stand‐ ard by which our master clocks are kept regulated, and these in adjusting and timing of “ Illinois’’ ‐ t h e world’s finest watches. Twice daily, at 12 noon and at 8 in the evening, correct time for the Central Time Zone is sent out from the Illinois Watch Company’s wireless station located in the astronomical observatory. The sending of these signals seems a very simple matter, for a switch or two is closed and the great sending machine, shown at the right in the illustration, transmits the signals which reach 500 to 1,000 miles in all directions from Springfield. Let us visit the observatory about ten minutes before neon. Mr. Johnson has checked his master clock and everything is in readiness. He will start sending the time signals at 11:55 sharp. A few minutes before this he will go to the key shown at the right side of the table and send out notice that the time signals will follow immediately. Then, on'the second, a switch is thrown and the master clock automatically controls the great 55,000 volt sending machine which throws the vibrations out into space. The seconds are ticked ofi from 11:55. The 29, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59th seconds of each minute for four minutes are omitted. During the fifth minute the 29th as well as the ten seconds from the 50th to the 60th are likewise omitted. Then on the 60th a prolonged final signal indicates 12 noon‐Central Time. The Illinois weather report for the day is sent out immediately afterward and is picked up by operators with receiving apparatus such as shown on the table. The Illinois Watch Company’s wireless station is officially known as 9ZS and the operators have had m a n y interesting expe‐ riences with their work. Some time ago a professor in the University of Minnesota wrote that his mother lives on a farm in the northern part of that state. On one of his visits home he installed a wireless station for her and now, he writes, she keeps in touch with the outside world and listens daily for our time signals. On another occasion a Standard Oil boat lay oif St. Augustine, Florida. The operator heard our evening signals and located the station sending them. He wrote 11s that it made him homesick when he learned Where they came from, for his,home is in Lincoln, Illinois. > This station was a great school for amateur wireless operators during the war and Mr. Johnson is known far and wide for his work in connection with it. Magazine Writes Up Illinois Wireless Activities We need not rack our brains in this case f o r the prime motive. A concern making a watch is naturally anxious that the watch will keep good time. If that concern is reasonably certain the finished watch is accurate they naturally enough want them to have a likewise accurate means of.comparison. The sending of daily time sig‐ nals, so that nearby owners of watches m a y have a depend‐ able source of “checking u p ” is therefore a step in the right direction and in keeping with The September issue of Radio News, published in New York City, has a full pageillustrated article on the wireless activi‐ ties of the Illinois Watch Com‐ pany. Among other things, the editor writes: “ T h i s concern is probably the first one -in this country, if not in the world, to actually transmit time signals and weather reports each day. The transmission of time sig‐ nals is, of course, not a neW thing, but it is new for a watch making organization to do i t . the gospel of service.” The names of Sp r i ngfield, Illi‐ nois, and of Abra‐ ham Lincoln are inseparably linked together. Here he lived and practiced law. From here he went as chief magistrate of the nation. ~ Here it was in 1865 thathisbody was brought to be placed in its final resting place. S p r i ngfield is r i c h in memories of the martyred President. His old home is open to visitors. The site of his office, near the court house, is marked by a bronze tablet and his monument in Oak Ridge Ceme‐ tery isvisited every month by thousands of people from all parts of the world. Until recently a few of Mr. ognized by him in i an official appoint‐ ment after the formation of his cabinet. It is altogether fitting, then, that at this time we should reproduce an illustration of O’Connor’s great statue of Spring‐ field’s most illus‐ trious citizen. This represents him as he appeared on the morning of February 11, 1861, when, in the fol‐ lowing words, he said farewell to his Springfield friends and neighbors: “ M y Friends: No one, not in my situation, can ap‐ preciate my feel‐ i n g of sadness at this parting. To this place, and the kindness of these people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a century", and have passed from a y o u n g t o a n old man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I now leave, Lincoln’s most intimate friends were still living here. ”Notable among them was Mr.“John W. Bunn, who was one of Mr. not knowing when» or whether Lincoln’s most intimate friends and perhaps the first man rec‐ ever I may return, with a task before me greater than that which rested upon Washington. Without the assistance of that Divine Being who ever at‐ tended him,’ I cannot succeed. W i t h that assistance I cannot fail. TrustinginHimwhocan go with me and remain with A. Lincoln Relic Of Great Historic Interest In the rear of the Memorial Hall of the Lincoln Monument in Oak Ridge Cemetery lies a block of stone whose history goes back nearly 2,500 years. you, and be everywhere for good, let us confidently hope that all will yet “be well. To His care commending you, as I hope in your prayers you will commend me, I bid you an affectionate farewell.” “ T o Abraham Lincoln, Pres‐ ident for the'second time, of the American Republic, citizens of Rome present this stone, Tullius ‐ a great In 1865 Roman admirers of Abraham Lincoln ‐ another great lover of the common people‐sent him one of the stones taken from this wall, on which they had inscribed the following inscription: The stone, evidently by Mr. Lincoln’s direction, w a s depos‐ ited in the basement of the White House, where it lay until it was discovered in 1870. In that year a joint resolution was introduced into Congress to have it placed in an appropri‐ ate place in a conservatory of the U. S. Botanical Gardens, of the A. Lincoln watch, I bought one of the much advertised watches. After struggling with it but'through the efforts of the nearly two years in an effort to Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, the make it keep fairly correct time, I resolution was altered and the architect of the Capitol was directed to send the stone to Springfield to be deposited in the Lincoln Monument. The resolution passed both the Sen‐ ate and the House by June 17, tured. The watch in question was 1870. The stone was immedi‐ ately shipped to Springfield and has been in the Memorial Hall since August, 1871. A Rear Admiral Praises The A. Lincoln Watch There is, perhaps, nothing which brightens the day more than the receipt of kindly let‐ ters. They are a source of encouragement and inspira‐ tion. As an evidence of this read the following‐the first came from a rear admiral of the United States Navy, located in Washington; the second from a gentleman living in Milwaukee, while the third was written by a prominent busi‐ ness m a n of San Antonio, Texas: “About a year ago I secured from a jeweler in Washington, an Illi‐ nois watch, twenty-one jewels and known as the A. Lincoln. It keeps such perfect time and is in every way so satisfactory that I take much pleasure in bringing these facts to your notice. “Before coming into possession set two months a g o and on that day it was five seconds fast of Naval Observatory time; today, just sixty days later, it is fast fif‐ teenseconds,havinggainedin that time ten seconds. In the last sev‐ enteen days it has not varied the fraction of a second. It is a com‐ fort and a pleasure to own such a Possibly I am intruding, but I hope I am not and trust that my letter will give you some satisfaction.” The writer of the second letter wanted to buy a watch. He wrote for literature so that he could make an intelligent comparison of values offered by the various makers. We sent him our booklet and with it a copy of a recent issue of “Doings.” Note the conclu‐ sion he reached: “Received the literature of the B u n n Special and other'Illinois watches and was very glad to see the fine line of Illinois Railroad Watches. “The prices of the Illinois Rail‐ road Watches are reasonable com‐ pared to other makes of watches. “1 went down to my jeweler Sat‐ urday and bought an A. Lincoln Illinois Watch and find it to be one returned it to the jeweler and he gave me the Illinois watch in ex‐ change. “I had never heard of the make until that time. N o w all my friends know what a fine watch I own and where it was manufac‐ of the finest 16-size railroad watches made.7 The third letter follows: “I Wish to thank you for the three copies of ‘Doings’ y o u were kind enough‘to send me. I enjoyed reading them, especially the Janu‐ ary issue with a picture of your fine observatory. rings, and the great nebula in Orion, with its coal black spot, and Trapezium, and m a n y double stars. For good seeing an eight-inch telescope is ideal, as the great telescopes: are affected by the un‐ steadiness of the atmosphere. I feel sure your Mr. Johnson will be looking forward towards the time when Saturn’s rings will only show a narrow strip of light,which, “I have a small four-inch tele‐ scope which I, use frequently in if I remember right, will be in looking at the heavenly bodies, such as Jupiter’s moons, Saturn’s We Make Good Watches As Well As Good Friends Visitors to Springfield have frequently spoken most appre‐ ciatively of the fine courtesy Visit Springfield during the accorded them by the Illinois fair. He has been given a most Watch Company in showing cordial invitation to visit us them through the factory. That such courtesy not only makes enduring friends but enthusi‐ astic owners of Illinois watches is evident from the following letter just received from Mr. T. L. Endsley, of Charleston, Illi‐ nois, who visited us thirty-five 01' more years ago: “Was in Springfield some time between 1881 and 1885 and visited Lincoln Monument by horse car line, then walked across to y o u r factory. After being shown through I took the mule car line back to town. When I came home I went into the jewelry store owned by Joseph Dicob and was telling him of my visit and that I’d be glad to have a Springfield watch. He sent for one for me, works number 429358, which I have carried nearly every day since. It is in perfect Library Extension In Entrance Hall 1922. Saturn must be a fine sight in your telescope.” condition except a new crystal, which is not quite so thick as the old one.” Mr. Endsley is a breeder of thoroughbred cattle and may again and we know that he will be pleased to see how we have g r o w n through the years since his previous visit. The Lincoln Library Exten‐ sion has been moved from the Girls’ Rest Room to the main entrance hall and seventy-five new books added. Miss Mendonsa is the libra‐ rian in charge and reports a greatly increased interest on the part of both men and women. At present an average of twenty books are taken out daily. 60 |IVl ch“ 12'1"? 10 ........ Watch Dials Connect Us With Timekeeping Methods Of Remotest Antiquity The steadiest worker we know of is old Father Time. He doesn’t work overtime, but he has never been known to lose a day, an hour, a minute or even the fraction of a second. He has a method of his own and men in all ages have tried to find out how he keeps track of himself. The Hindoos were the first to attempt this difficult task and to solve it mapped out the daily and yearly course of the sun through the heavens. They called this path the Zodiac and divided it into twelve equal sections of t h i r t y degrees each. These sec‐ tions were named after animals which the leading constellation in each section w a s supposed to resemble. By means of this celestial dial the ancient inhabitants of northern India kept track of the longer periods of time‐the hours, the days, the months and the years. Coming down the stream of time we find the ancient Zodiacal circle in use by the early Hebrews. An illustration of it as used by them is shown in the drawing on the right. We have added the two outer circles simply asan explanatory measure. Now let us compare this ancient dial of the heavens with our modern watch dial. Both are divided into twelve equal sec‐ tions of thirty degrees. Note the peculiar character in the center of the older dial. This is the Hebrew letter “ S h i n ” and repre‐ sents the sun. Look at the modern dial on the left and observe the symbol of the sun in its center. The twelve divisions of the older dial are each marked with a Hebrew letter. Four of these letters make a group as shown between the two dials. There are three such groups around the older dial. The four letters in each group are Hebrew for J H V H or Jehovah. Now here is a curious thing. The Hebrews did not have numerical characters as we have, so they expressed numbers by the letters of their alphabet. Thus we find the letter which corresponds to our J stood for 10; the one for H, for 5; the one for V, for 6,and again the H for 5. Added together the name JHVH (JeHoVaH) yields 10 plus 5 plus 6 plus 5, or 26. As there are three such groups, the sum of all the letters around the inner circle of the older dial is three times 26, or 78. The letters yielding this number had a wonderful significance to the Hebrews, for to them it meant JHVH‐He that Was, Is and Ever Will Be. Now turn to the modern watch dial on the left and add the figures from 1 to 12 and we’ll find the result is 78‐the same asin the older dial. The length of the year is approximately 36514 days. That the ancient Hebrews knew this will be evident if we divide 30‐‐ the number of degrees in each of the twelve sections‐by the numerical value of the letters composing the name JHVH. If we do this we find that 10, 5, 6 and 5 divided successively into 30 yields 3656, or 365 days‘ and 6 hours. Now add the outer figures in the twelve sections of the older dial and the sum will be 60. Note the same number over the figure 12 and in the second bit in the modern dial, and we cannot help but be impressed with the fact that our watch dials of today connect us in a striking manner with the timekeeping methods of remotest antiquity. The Bolivian Minister’s Visit Springfield and her manner of receiving guests is given prominence in recent issues of two monthly magazines de‐ voted to South American inter‐ ests and the union of the two continents, North and South America. While in the city Senor Cal‐ deron w a s the guest of the Mid-day Luncheon Club‐‐the officers of which requested that he be shown through the Watch Factory. It is needless to say that our distinguished visitor enjoyed every moment spent among us and that his pleasure was The occasion was the visit of Sefior Don Ignacio Calderon greatly enhanced by the pre‐ and his daughter to the old sentation of a bracelet watch home and tomb of Abraham to his beautiful and accom‐ Lincoln. ’ plished daughter. ' Saturn Jupiter Saturday Thursday Tuesday One of the most interesting pursuits imaginable is that of searching o u t the reasons underlying what everyone takes as a matter of course. We are familiar with so many things with which we come in daily contact that it does not often occur to us to inquire into their history or origin. Take, for in‐ stance, the days of the week. W h y are there seven of them and how did they get their names? To secure an answer to our questions we will have to go far back into the history of the ancient world. By doing so we will find that the ancient Chaldeans e a r l y observed that all of the heav‐ enly bodies did not move in a uniform manner. Some moved slower and some faster than others. These variable “stars” they called planets. As these bodies traveled in their orbits around the sun they counted six in all and with the sun it‐ Venus Mercury Moon Friday Wednesday Monday self there was a total of seven bodies in the solar system of their time. The plan‐ ets a r e designated by symbols and have always been ar‐ ranged as we show them in the first illustration. The first is Saturn, followed by Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, M e r ‐ cury and the Moon. There a r e seven days in the week be‐ cause a day was set apart for each of these heavenly bod‐ ieszhe names of the days as we know them today have come down to us from the old Saxon n a m e s of these same planets, which were called Sator, Thor, Tuisco, Sunnan, Friga, Woden and Monan. These in turn cOme from the Latin Saturni, Jovis, Martis, Solis, Veneris, Mercuri and Lunae, While these names are translated from still older languages. The week of seven days was not introduced into Rome until A. D. 292, but it was in use from the remotest antiquity in week‐has the sun symbol for the old culture nations of the its sign. Then observe how the East. As each day of the week contains 24 hours, there are 168 in the week of seven days. That the ancient Chaldeans knew of this division of time is evident from the fact that their calen‐ dar was so arranged that the first hour of each day was said to be ruled by the planet from which the day derived its name. This will be seen by referring to the planetary table. Note that the first hour of the week‐the first day of the Watch Factory Health Service The Watch Factory rest room described in our last issue is n o w completed and is fully prepared to care for all needing medical or minor surgical treat‐ ment during working hours. Mrs. J. L. Taylor, a trained nurse of wide experience, is in attendance at all times, while Dr. Amant can be consulted without charge by employees in the rest room between the hours of one and two on Mon‐ day, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday afternoons. Cafeteria Lunch Room Continues Very Popular succeeding hours c a r r y the symbols shown on the right of the sun in the first illustration and then pick up those starting on the left. Continue in this manner through the 24 hours of the first day and we’ll find that the first hour of the sec‐ ond day (Monday) has the moon symbol ruling its first hour, and so on through the week until we again find the sun symbol ruling the first hour of the first day of the succeed‐ ing week. with the (most delicious “Golden Age” coffee, are but a few of the wonderful things served in the Watch Company’s Cafeteria at noon. A year ago the cafeteria was an experimentfitoday it is a permanent institution, which serves anywhere f r o m 200 to 250 diners in the space of a quarter of an hour. “Doings” Articles Have Wide Reading Within the past few months leading articles from “Doings” have been reprinted in the Jewelers’ Circular, of New York; The Manufacturing Jew‐ eler, Providence, R. I . ; The National Jeweler, of Chicago, Roast beef and gravy, baked beans with bacon, pies like and in the Northwestern Jew‐ mother used to make, together eler, of Albert Lea, Minn. ll\\\\\\ll QQQ\\\ \\ =\. QQQ IQ\\.\\.-\ \\\\\\\\\ 36 QQQQQQQQ \\\\\\\I\\\\§\ ( §\\\\QQQ\\\ \..\\.IQ I . Q\ . -!Q§QI&\\\ QQQ-QQ SUN QQIQQ! Q MOON ..\\\\\\I. 28 \QQ.§\QQ\ The Swastika‐Once A Universal Time Symbol In the summer of 1894 an English gentleman asked D r . Wilson, of the United States National Museum, if we had the Swastika here in America. The doctor told him that we had and showed him three specimens. This inquiry started Wilson on a search for literature on this subject, but very little was found in the English language. He, thereupon, concluded that the Swastika would be a good subject f o r presentation to the Smithsonian Institution for “diffusion ‘of knowledge among men. ” Dr. Wilson accordingly began work on this subject and in a masterly paper of 220 pages, published in the 1894 report of the National Museum, brings together a vast amount of information regarding this earliest known symbol which, in prehistoric times, circled the globe and is today found in age old remains in China, Japan, India, Egypt, Palestine, Europe, Central America and in that portion of North America occupied by the United States. While Dr. Wilson considered the primitive meaning of the Swastika to be lost in the depths of antiquity, he came to the conclusion that it was the first symbol to be made with a definite meaning which, at one time, was universally known all over the earth. What, then, is the meaning of the Swastika? We fi n d the answer in a remarkable little volume by the distinguished archaeologist, Frank C. Higgins, who shows that the Swastika was an ancient time symbol and that, like all other symbols of antiquity, was founded upon facts of a cosmic nature. In his volume, “The Cross of the Magi,” Higgins shows that in early times the number 36 was representative of the sun and, 28 of the moon. The addition of these numbers produced 64, which was regarded as a Divine number, and, when laid out in squares, pro‐ duces not only the ancient Mosaic pavement‐the foundation of m a n y old symbols‐but the chess and checker boards which have come down to us from the remotest past. Two of these Mosaic squares are shown at the beginning of this article. The one on the left contains the “Jerusalem Cross,” an ancient mystical symbol which has long stood for “Jehovah ‐ H e that Was, Is and Ever Will Be.” Note that there are 36 squares in the figure of the cross, while there are 28 in the field outside. Now, if we turn to the figure on the right we find that it contains the Swastika. Twelve of the squares are white. Twelve from 64 leaves 52. The sides of the square are four‐‐ each of the four has seven darkened squares‐4 times 7 gives us 28, the Lunar number, and 7 times 52 yields 364, the number of days in the lunar year; all of which conclusively proves that the Swastika is an ancient and universal symbol of the circling year, with its divisions of four seasons, twelve months, fifty-two weeks and 364 days. Swastika In Flag Of ‘ Allied Army Big Foreign Demand For Illinois Watches In ten months the Illinois Watch Company has received siderable attention. A day or so fifty-nine letters from foreign The article on the Swastika in our last issue attracted con‐ after “Doings” appeared the daily newspapers carried a front page item that an army of two thousand men from Sweden, Spain, Denmark, Bel‐ gium, France and England probably Would march into Vilna in January ready for the plebiscite, which w i l l be held some time in February. The army’s flag, it continued, w i l l be a blue square with a white field in the left hand corner bearing a red swastika in the center. countries relative to supplies of Illinois watches. These letters come from England, France, Japan, China, Jamaica, Siam, Poland, Philippines, Italy, Aus‐ tralia“; South Africa, Portugal, Ecuador, Holland, New Zea‐ land, Spain, Cuba, Lithuania and the Penong Straits Settle‐ ments. Up to the present time, however, the entire product is being absorbed by the domestic trade and the company is un‐ able as yet to consider any export business. Some Interesting Facts About The Calendar Whenever we think of timekeepers, we naturally think of watches and clocks, little realizing that the calendar which we consult more or less every day of our lives is the oldest time‐ keeper we have. It is not known who invented it, but the cal‐ endar, with its seven spaces across‐one for each day of the week‐and five down‘‐one for each week or part of a week‐was in use thousands of years ago by the ancient peoples of Babylonia and Chaldea. As it came down through the ages many errors crept into it. These were temporarily corrected by Julius Caesar about 45 years B. C. To make these corrections he called in Sosigenes, a learned Babylonian Jew from Alexandria, Egypt. Sosigenes fixed the average length of the year at 36514 days and to equalize matters allotted 365 days to each of three years and 366 to the fourth. While reforming the calendar Caesar decided to make a few changes in the distribution of the days among the various months. To January, March, May, July, September and October he gave thirty-one days and to the others, with the exception of February, he gave thirty each. February was given twenty-nine in each of three years, but every fourth year it was allowed thirty. This reformed calendar is known as the Julian calendar. Very few changes were made in Caesar’s arrangement until 1600 or more years after his time. A minor change was made in the allotment of days to the months by his grand nephew, Augustus. He took one of the days from February and gave it to the month bearing h i s namef s o t h a t i t s h o u l d h a v e a s m a n y d a y s i n i t a s w e r e g i v e n to the one named in honor of his great uncle, Julius. In order, however, that three months of thirty-one days might not come together, September and November were reduced to thirty days and thirty-one allotted to October and December respectively. The Julian calendar fell short of being correct by nearly 12 minutes a year. While not noticeable at the time, it was found that the e r r o r amounted to three days in every 400 years. This was observed by the venerable Bede in the eighth century. In the thirteenth century Roger Bacon wrote a treatise on the sub‐ ject and sent it to the Pope. Nothing, however, came of this until Pope Gregory XIII, in March, 1582, issued a brief in which he abolished the Julian calendar and substituted the one which has since been received in all Christian countries, with the exception of Russia, which is n o w twelve days behind. The edict of the Pope took effect in October, 1582, and the change was made by suppressing ten days, thus causing the 5th of that month to be called the 15th. Spain, Portugal and I t a l y made the change at once; France did soin December and Germany in the following year. GreatBritain,however,persistedintheoldstylefornearly two hundred years, but owing to the great inconvenience caused in her foreign relations, made the change in September, 1752 This was done by calling the 3rd the 14th, for the error by this time amounted to eleven days. The opposition to this change was so great among the lower classes, who thought they had been robbed of eleven days, that they r a n after members of Parliament, who had secured the passage of the law, and pelted them with stones and mud. Aside from its historical interest, there are many other inter‐ esting features about our calendar‐an indication of which is given in the diagram of the present month at the beginning of this article. Note the nine squares in the upper r i g h t hand corner. Add the figures in the diagonals, horizontals and the perpen‐ diculars. Thesumofeachis27. Usefigure12asthenextcenter and note the advance f r o m 27 to 36, a difference of nine. Con‐ tinue with 13, 14, 15 and 16 as centers and note the advance from each by three. T h e n observe the advance when 19 is used as a center. When y o u have completed this, r u n up the figures in the cross at the left. Note the advance by fours. There are many surprises in the addition of these various numbers if one will follow them up. Finally, add the figures in each perpendicular column and note that those having four filled spaces increase over the preceding column by four and that those with five filled spaces advance over the others by fives. Have y o u r friends work out these various combinations and compare notes. years ago watches were a luxury for kings and nobles, and even then they were ex‐ ceedingly bulky affairs. Before the invention of watches the time of day was frequentlydetermined by pocket sun dials, such as is shown in the illustration. The original of this one was a little over two inches square and was made by A Five Gallon Milk Can Of Watches an English dial maker by the name of Butterfield, in Paris. The circular space in the fore‐ ground contains a compass, while the triangular object above it throws the shadow upon the dial figures by which the time is indicated. This tri‐ angular object must be pointed to the north to indicate the time and the north is deter‐ mined by the compass. As time varies in the differ‐ ent latitudes, the triangular object can be raised or lowered for use in the territory em‐ braced between the 43rd and 52nd parallels of n o r t h latitude, as indicated on the right hand side of the dial. This time‐ keeper, no doubt, was used by an extensive European traveler, for on the back of it we find engraved the degrees of lati‐ tude of most of the principal European cities. To determine the time, then, all he needed to do was to raise the triangular object the number of degrees required and then to see where the shadow fell on the space marked by the corresponding ' degrees of latitude on the dial. eler who has long. been a booster for Illinois watches, spent a few hours in going through the factory. .Mr. Anderson’svisitrecalls m a n y interesting experiences he has had in selling Illinois watches throughout the North and in Alaska. the only thing Mr. Anderson could do was to ship the watches back to the factory. To do this he secured a five-gal‐ lon milk can, in which he placed the.watches and covered them with kerosene. The can was then sealed and sent to us. We opened it as soon as it arrived, but we could do nothing as the On one of his trips north the boat was several days out of Seattle, when it struck a snag and sunk. M r . Anderson’s trunk, containing over a hun‐ dred Illinois watches, went to action of the sea water had the bottom. Several days later completely ruined the move‐ it was recovered by divers and A Tribute To The Watch ments. in rightful succession, and yet I face the hours fearlessly with hands up. Dawn of day comes and it is my appeal that bids y o u rise. I follow each individual along the Last summer Mr. Louis Woolfe, a representative of the U. S. Agricultural Depart‐ course of hours and at eventide ment, visited the Illinois State Fair, and incidentally the Illi‐ nois Watch Factory. Upon his return to Washington he wrote the following tribute to the watch and sent it to the editor of Doings: say goodnight without a hand grasp. No person can gainsay that I am other than faithful in the long run. Lacking in reliability at periods, I cover this failing by hours of on‐ timeness and return from the way‐ ward course in a mood to again invite confidence. “Conceived as a necessity, born of a master inventor, I have grown to perfection as a loyal companion to the ever changing lite condi‐ strange, mysterious monotone, my tions. face m a y be covered, but my hands are not inactive. When lovers are abroad in the moonlight, I cease to be of intimate concern. Transportation, commerce, indus‐ try‐all, all await my direction; in fact, the universe is governed by my dictation. I am an imperialistic monarch, a k i n g in the personal domain. Speechless as regards a guardian angel of womanhood, the common tongue, yet I chronicle all things great and good. Time is the essence of. my ex‐ istence. With me seconds come and go; minutes race across my path criterion of manhood, and the silver-and-gold cloaked sentinel who announces to everyone‐“the end of the journey." I AM THE WATCH. When work is a recognized obli‐ gation, and industry sings in a I am the biographer of child‐ hood, the historian of youth, the get another for his wife. His letter follows: “Please advise me if y o u make the Sangamo Special in ladies’ grade watches. I am contemplat‐ i n g the purchase of a wrist watch for my wife and wish to be in a position “to ask for a. good grade of y o u r manufacture in ladies’ watches‐Sangamo Special, if pos‐ sible, because I am carrying one of this grade myself, and truly it cannot be excelled it‘ equalled. If this grade is not furnished in ladies’ watches, please say what is a good grade, as I wish to get one through my jeweler.” “You may be interested to know that I was persuaded to b u y one of y o u r 21-jewel movements last year; that Messrs. Keeler & South Dakota, who writes us Kroehnke are the guilty parties to If there is one thing above all others that we hear most frequently about Illinois watches it is of their remark‐ able accuracy. Individually and. collectively we must be doing good work or we would not receive such en‐ thusiastic letters as those re‐ produced below. The first is from an Ottawa, Ill., gentleman and is endorsed by the firm selling him.his Illinois watch: the persuasion; that I had the watch regulated two times; the last time was on the 14th day of last October, and it has r u n without a stop from that time and now shows fourteen seconds fast ‐ correct time. The above jewelers inspect‐ Bunn Special 21-jewel movements, i n g the watch nearly every week, and I am asking that these state‐ ments be verified. I have decided to put the movement into a solid gold case and carry it through life. I doubt the accuracy of any other watch in America to equal my Illinois.” The second letter comes from the office of the superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Rail‐ way Company. This gentleman is so well pleased with his Illinois watch that he wants to 18 size, which I bought the 7th of last May. When should this move‐ ment be oiled or cleaned and oiled? I have had a good m a n y good watches in my time, but this Bunn Special is the closet and best timer and the most reliable watch" I have ever had or seen. If any‐ thing should happen to this watch it would be a Bunn Special again for me and nothing else. I highly recommend this timepiece. A man offered to trade me a new for it today, but I told him nothing doing. But will you please tell me about when I should have this The third letter is from a plumber l i v i n g in Vermilion, about his Bunn Special which he purchased just a year ago: “I am asking for a little infor‐ mation. You are the makers of my watch and the proper people to inquire of. I have one of your watch oiled, and can-I send it in to you people and have you do it for me, as I am particular who works on this watch.” The fourth letter is from the Milwaukee g e n t l e m a 11 who wrote us the second of the three letters which appeared in the February issue of “Do‐ ings.” In that letter he wrote that he had recently purchased an A. Lincoln watch and that he was so well pleased with it. “Received your letter of April 24th and also the Lincoln medal and thank you very much for it. ing a Bunn Special for over twelve years. He has a com‐ plaint‐but note that it is not about the movement. “I am writing y o u these few lines to let your firm know that I have been carrying a Bunn Special watch for over twelve years and will gladly say that I will put my watch side by side and it will keep time with any watch that is made in America. Am sending y o u my card and y o u people can see for yourselves how it is keeping time. In six months time this watch gained five seconds. It is adjusted to six [different positions and con‐ tains 23 jewels. As I am a con‐ A friend begged me to sell him my Bunn Special Illinois watch, ductor on the Western Maryland which I did, for he was in need of a good watch. I told him that if the watch did not prove satisfac‐ tory to him I would take it back. As my friend will not part with it I will soon be in the market for another Illinois railroad Watch, for it is handy for me‐when one breaks I w i l l have another to work with. I have carried my third Illinois and never had a n y of them repaired. I also wish to tell y o u that the Lincoln watch which I purchased last January proves satisfactory to me. I expect to buy a Sangamo Special in a short time and have already talked to the in‐ spector about it. Was glad to read the little letter of mine in your pctory paper, DOINGS, and the and r u n over six divisions we must compare our watches each trip w i t h a standard'clock, and I have had lots of engineers and brake‐ men ask me what make my watch is and I always tell them. But I am not very well pleased with the case, as it has a 15-year guarantee, and am sorry to say that it is wear‐ i n g off on the ends; other ways would not part with it for any‐ thing. Since I have been carrying my watch I have taken at least 15 trainmen and got them a Bunn Special. Expect to come to Illinois in July and go through your fac‐ tory. We appreciate these letters which the superior merits of letters of those other two gentle‐ Illinois watches are continually men. They sure know what they are talking about.” bringing us and it gives us much pleasure to pass them on As we were getting these let‐ to each and every one of you ters together for the printer we whose work is, in so great a received the following from a measure, responsible for these Western Maryland railroad enthusiastic Illinois w a t c h conductor who has been carry‐ boosters. A mile east of the tomb he found a magnificent park with a large astronomical" observa~ tory in the foreground. You can imagine his surprise when he learned that this was not a. college campus, but the grounds of a large watchmaking insti‐ tution established in 1870 by friends and associates of the martyred President. Naturally, the young man could hardly realize that such a large indus‐ try, employing over 1,200 people, could exist without having its product advertised in all the great magazines. Now that is the way multi‐ tudes of men and women feel after they have been to Spring‐ field, and this explains why these watches are not exten‐ sively advertised in the maga‐ zines. They are sold almost as But when he thought of the thousands of visitors to Spring‐ fast as they are made. But let field and to this institution; the us tell y o u of some of the things bright, happy faces of the which interested the young workers in these ideal sur‐ man. roundings; the astronomical observatory and the wireless time station which is the time headquarters f o r the entire Central Time Zone, and» then of the associations clustering around these people and their wonderful product, he saw the reason why the demand for these watches is so great, and then and there he, too, decided that‐ We’ll start with “Illinois,” the name these watches bear. Centuries ago Hennepin said it came from the Indian word “Illini,” which signifies a complete, finished and perfect man, imbued With the spirit and bravery of the men of every nation that ever lived. When yon heard your country calling, Illinois, Illinois; When the shot and shell were falling, Illinois, Illinois; When the ”Southern Host” with‐ drew, . , Pitting Gray against the Blue, . There were none more brave than yon, Illinois, Illinois,“ ‐ And it’s true. Take one shining example ‐ Abraham Lincoln. Then consider the Illi‐ There were none more brave than you, Illinois. N o t withont thy wond’rons story, Illinois, Illinois; Conld bewrit the nation’s glory, Illinois, Illinois; On the record of thy years Ab’ralm Lincoln’s name appears, Grant and Logan and our tears, Illinois, Illinois; Grant and Logan and our tears, Illinois. I llinois, Illinois; representing Illinois welcom‐ And its mellow tones are these, ing the world. This is typical nois people‐the “Illini,” as Elbert Hubbard loved to call them‐warm-hearted and hos‐ pitable, Whose devotion to their State is beautifully expressed in their inspiring song: ILLINOIS. By thy rivers gently flowing, Illinois, Illinois; O’er_thy prairies verdant grow‐ mg, Illinois, Illinois; Comes an echo on the breeze, Rnstling through the leafy trees, House in Springfield t h e r e And its mellow tones are these, stands a magnificent statue Illinois. From a wilderness of prairie, Illinois, Illinois; Straight. thy w a y and never varies, Illinois, Illinois; Tillnpontheinlandsea .. .. of the Illinois people. It is appropriate, too, that this statue should be here, f o r Springfield is the mecca of the “Illini” and of constantly in‐ creasing hosts from all parts of the world. In Springfield it was that Abraham Lincoln Stands thy great commercial tree, lived and practiced law. From Turning all the world to thee, Illinois, Illinois; Turning all the world to thee, Illinois. here he went as chief magis‐ trate of the nation, and here it was, at the old station, a few blocks south of the present In the rotunda of the State Wabash Station, that he had his last View of Springfield as he appeared on the platform of his car to make that remark‐ able farewell address to his be‐ loved Illinois home folks. That was the last time Springfield saw Abraham Lin‐ coln alive. But the names of the two are inseparably linked together. Here it was, in 1865, that his body was brought to be placed“ in its final resting place. Here is located his old pilgrimage to this mecca of the “Illini,” wefeel that you, too, will say with him who fell under the charm of its people and their associations‐ “Illinois, Illinois, That’s the watch for me.” home, which is open to visitors, as well as the site of his office, marked by a bronze tablet; the Court House, where his body lay in state; his monument in Oak Ridge Cemetery, which is visited every month by thou‐ sands of people from all parts of the world and who ever after are imbued with the gra‐ cious and hospitable spirit “of the “Illini.” These a r e the associations which made such a deep im‐ pression on the young man and, whether or not you make a Court House tormerly State House folks of the First American‐‐ as Rankin calls him‐named their choicest products after mmmmmm associated w i t h him. What m o r e appropriate names could the Illinois Watch Company of Springfield have chosen for its best products than “ A . Lincoln,” “Bunn,” “Bunn Special” and “Sanga‐ mo Special”? “A. LINCOLN” It is unnecessary to go into the details of the naming of this watch. It was originally designed f o r railroad service, but the demand for it from young men who revere the name of Lincoln has become so great that the makers decided to feature it as a young man’s their superior accuracy and watch. ' “BUNN” and “BUNN SPECIAL” These watches a r e named after an old Illinois family which was long and intimately associated with Abraham Lin‐ coln. Both of these watches have been favorites with railroad men for many years because of durability. “SANGAMO SPECIAL” Another watch which is inti‐ mately associated with the name of Abraham Lincoln, for it was at an early date that he moved into the “Sangamo country”‐a,large part of Illi‐ nois, which in his time ex‐ tended in three parallel strips from the vicinity of St. Louis to Lake Michigan. many years ago as a sample of stone the quarries in that vicinity could supply for the building of the n e w Illinois State House. . Our Grounds Greatly Admired Visitors to Springfield fre‐ quently comment on our beau- ' t i f u l surroundings. Never be‐ fore have our grounds been in such excellent condition. The vast expanse of lawn, the mag‐ nificent new building and as‐ tronomical observatory with the trees, the shrubbery and the old vine covered buildings as a background gives the whole the appearance of an educational institution rather than that of a manufacturing plant. The grounds will be much more beautiful as the season ad‐ vances, for Mr. Philip Scharf and his assistants have set out hundreds of cannas, salvias and petunas, which w i l l soon be in full bloom. Have y o u stone? It is located on the edge of the duck pond near the entrance at the fair grounds. This stone, cut at an angle of _23% degrees, was a capital of one of the pilasters of the Mor‐ m o n temple at Nauvoo, Illinois, and was sent to Springfield ever seen this Some time ago a gentleman saw an illustration of a watch turned upside down and want‐ ed to know why it was shown in this position. called ‘ “full plate” and the plates composing them were brass and finished by gilding. The cases that protected these movements were frequently solid gold, but mostly silver and nickel and corresponded w i t h the movements in size, weight and thickness. These old time watches were considered sufficient f o r a l l purposes, but sometime in the nineties the railroads of the country awoke to the fact that an appalling number of colli‐ sions were dueto the Varying time kept by the watches used by their men. . Soa’ time inspection service was installed. This consisted of a head inspector, who saw that the time over the entire road was uniform and that each‘ man’s watch kept time, within a reasonable limit, with the standard timekeeper. To insure this desired result, local in‐ spectors w e r e appointed at division points, whose duty it w a s to inspect each man’s watch at regular intervals. There’s where the weakness of the old-time watches became manifest. A few were right, but the majority were irregular in their rate of timekeeping. They could not be made to run uni‐ formly. This was the situation which So we’ll start at the begin‐ ning‐ You know the watch indus‐ t r y in the United States started in the sixties of the last cen‐ tury. From the beginning Ameri‐ can watches took high rank as timekeepers and their supe‐ riority has continued to the present day. F o r years these watches were made in the large, thick, heavy 18 size. The movements w e r e the railroad authorities faced to‐ ward the close of the last century. In the meantime the science of watchmaking had taken a long step forward and the movements were made in new models and in smaller sizes. . When the difficulties of the rail‐ road authorities were presented to the watch manufacturers, they pro‐ posed supplying them with move‐ ments which were rated and ad‐ justed so that they would r u n uni‐ formly in the hardest and most exacting service. The first of these watches were adjusted to temperature and three positions. This test was a pretty thorough one and consisted of put‐ ting each watch through an oven and refrigerator test, until it r a n uniformly in both extremes of tem‐ perature. When this test was satisfactorily passed the movement w a s tested with the dial up,thendial down and finally placed in a frame with the 12 up. The rate was carefully noted in each position and if the watch kept uniform time in all it was passed; if not, it had to be readjusted until it met the requirements. These watches ‘were technically known as “adjusted to temperature and three positions.” They gave better service than the former un‐ adjusted watches, but as yet were not all that was desired. In their efforts to still further increase the timekeeping uniformity of their product, the watch manufacturers adjusted the movements to two more positions. They did this by ad‐ justing them with the figure 3 up and then with the figure 9 u p . The watch, as in the three‐ position adjustment, had to r u n uniformly in the five positions before it w a s satisfactory. The increased number of adjust‐ ments added to the efficiency, accuracy and uniformity of the timekeeping of the watches, b u t it also added considerably to justments indelibly stamped in the cost. The “five position watches” were such an improvement over the “three position watches” that they became the standard for railroad service. the plates. See this in the illustrations on the following pages. The first one shown is the finest “Bridge Model” watch made. It is the “Sangamo Special,” and w i t h the cele‐ brated “ B u n n Special,” a “Three Quarter Plate” Model, holds the enviable distinction of being adjusted to S I X po‐ sitions, to temperature and isochronism. But, as y o u have noticed, there is still another position to which a watch should be ad‐ justed, and that is the position shown at the beginning of this talk. You can readily see for yourself that if a three-position adjustment makes a watch a good timekeeper, and a five‐ chief of the Illinois‐is made position adjustment makes it a better timekeeper, a six-posi‐ tion and all around adjustment will make a watch the finest kind of a timekeeper, That’s jewels. why the Illinois Watch Com‐ pany of Springfield adjusts its finest watches to all these posi‐ tions and that’s why we rec‐ ommend them so highly. Now, if you’ll open your watch y o u can readily deter‐ mine its quality. The late models are known as“Bridge” These watches cannot be sur‐ passed in any way‐in quality, design, finish, material, work‐ manship, durability or accu‐ racy, and yet they cost no more than many of the highly adver‐ tised watches. This is due to the fact that there is always a waiting m a r ‐ and “Three-Quarter Plate.” The materials composing the plates are no longer gilded brass, but finely finished and damaskeened nickel. You will also note that the movements are smaller and thinner, and that in addition to the manu‐ facturer’s name and serial number, they have the number of jewels and the various ad‐ The“ Sangamo Special’’‐‐the in the 23 jewel grade only. The “Bunn Special” is made in two grades, the first having 23 jewels and the second 21 ket for Illinois watches and we do not find it necessary to exploit them in the magazines. Therefore, when y o u want the finest watch that money can buy‐for railroad or pro‐ An Engineer’s Soliloquy On His Bunn Special Sanford W. Walker, an At‐ lantic Coast Line engineer, is sowell pleased with his Illinois watch that he has sent us the following copy of the soliloquy he wrote u p o n i t : fessional service, for gift or presentation purposes ‐‐ ask y o u r jeweler for the incompar‐ able Six Position “Sangamo Special” and “Bunn Special,” Illinois-Springfield watches. A Tribute To Illinois Watches We Appreciate One of the greatest pleasures in life is to be conscious of do‐ ing good work, and, next to this, to have the uniform supe‐ riority of it recognized by others. This recognition has “I bought you when you Were long been accorded us by the four weeks old. I paid twenty‐ eight dollars for you. I have car‐ ried y o u on my person daily, win‐ ter and summer, for over sixteen years, except when y o u were in the shop for a new mainspring and to be cleaned. To my best recollection I have left you run down but three times. You have measured the time for me to r u n all kinds of trains, against all kinds of trains, both night and day. You must be well designed, of good material and of good work‐ manship. You have traveled with me over mountains, by cities and rivers, through valleys and tunnels and though y o u have had several bumps and knocks, y o u still go on. I carried you when my hair was black. I am carrying you now when my hair is white. I might ask, ‘How long are you going to run?’ or, as I measure time, ‘How long are you going to live?’ If I have served my purpose as you have yours I have served it well.” trade and public in the steadily increasing demand for Illinois watches. Thesuperiorityofour handiwork has also attracted the attention of the Nicholson File Company, of Providence, Rhode Island‐ ‐ a manufactur‐ ing firm with an international reputation for making a quality product, as will be seen upon reference to the company’s full page advertisements which have appeared in recent issues of the jewelry trade papers. In these advertisements, designed to convey the idea of the high‐ est degree of perfection in its product, we find an illustration showing one of the finest Nich‐ olson files laid across a cased 12-size A. Lincoln movement. The compliment is a highly appreciated one, for all of us know that “like attracts like.” Tell the average individual outside the factory that we make over 700 watch movements a day and he’ll invariably ask what becomes of these watches. The question'is a natural one and easily answered. To continue in business year after year a manufacturer must make a high quality product. Superior quality makes friends for the merchandise. These friends are its best advertisements. We know this from experience. To date we have made over three' and a half millions of Illinois movements. Divide this number into one hundred millions‐the approximate ppulation of the United States‐and you’ll see how and why Illinois watches have become fairly well and most favorably known in all parts of the country. In more recent years we have discontinued the making of the cheaper grades of movements. ' W e make a specialty of watches for the exacting requirements of railroad service. These watches must be especially high grade. Railroad specifications call for watches adjusted to five positions. Our Sangamo Special and Bunn Special movements are adjusted to six positions‐one more than the railroads require at present. ' Naturally, we wish to impress this superiority of our movements on the railroad men. We do this by advertising in eight railroad men’s publica‐ tions which are read month after month by hundreds of thousands of these men in all branches of the service. In all of these adver‐ tisements these prospective buyers are continually referred to their local jewelers, for no matter where they are located, they carry the Illinois watches in stock or can easily get them from the wholesale jewelers. The 25,000 retail jewelers in the United States hear of our watches from their customers‐they hear of them from us through our salesmen, through their trade papers and from the wholesale jewelers who distribute Illinois watches from the thirty centers located in the most thickly populated sections of the country. lllinois~Springfield Watches ‘32 for Railroad and General Service Space will n o t permit of illus‐ trating all of them but a few of the most popular of these high grade watches are shown on the following pages. Without a doubt this is the finest bridge model railroad watch made. It is a new model and has 23 extra quality ruby and sap‐ phire jewels and is adjusted to SIX positions‐one more than the railroads require at present. The case is warranted for twenty‐five years. Special Features Twenty-three extra. quality ruby and sapphire jewels, raised gold settings; accurately adjusted to temperature, S I X positions and isochron‐ ism; very carefully rated and timed; special quality hardened and tem‐ pered compensating balance, with gold screws including mean time screws: gold train wheels; double roller escapement; beveled and polished steel escape Wheel; one piece polished and cornered pallet and fork; gold guard pin staked in fork; selected quality red ruby pallet jewels, oval top and bottom; ruby jewel pin; entire escapement cap jeweled, hand finished, conical pivots; best quality Breguet hairsprin‘g; safety screw center pinion; Illinois superior mainspring; Illinois motor barrel; patent micrometric screw regulator; recoiling click; concaved and polished wind‐ i n g wheels; screws are chamfered and slots cornered; fitted with either glass enamel dial or non-tarnishable silvered dial, heavy Arabic figures. °This movement is fitted, rerated and timed in a specially designed screw back and hinged bezel gold filled case which is warranted by the makers for twenty-five years. Ask your jeweler to show you this watch. An old time favorite with railroad m e n everywhere. The Bunn Special is a 16 size 34 plate model and is made in two grades, having 23 and 21 jewels respectively. These watches, like the Sangamo Special, are adjusted to SIX positions and can be obtained in a variety of cases warranted for 20 and 25 years. Special Features Extra quality ruby and sapphire jewels, raised gold settings; accur‐ ately adjusted to temperature, SIX positions and isochronism; very care‐ fully rated and timed; special quality hardened and tempered compen‐ sating balance, with gold screws, including mean time screws; rounded a r m polished gold train wheels; double roller escapement; entire escape‐ ment cap jeweled, conical pivots; beveled and»polished steel escape wheel; best quality Breguet hairspring; safety screw center pinion; Illinois superior mainspring; patent micrometric screw regulator; recoiling safety click; concaved, polished and rayed winding wheels; screws are cham~ fered and slots cornered; double sunk glass enamel dial; plates and bridges have chamfered edges, are nicely finished and artistically damaskeened. The 23 jewel Bunn Special contains the Illinois Motor Barrel. Exceptionally h i g h grade 16 size watches for railroad or a n y severe service. Ask your jeweler to Show you this watch. F o r years the standard railroad watch in 17 and 19 jewels. The Bunn is a 16 size 34 plate model and is adjusted to five posi‐ tions as is required. in the time service on American railroads. This movement can be had in a variety of cases warranted for 20 and 25 years. Special Features Extra quality ruby and sapphire jewels, raised gold settings, accur‐ ately adjusted to temperature, five positions and isochronism; very care‐ fully rated and timed; special quality hardened and tempered c o m p e n ‘ sating balance, with gold screws, including mean time screws; rounded arm polished gold train wheels; double roller escapement; beveled and polished steel escape wheel; one piece polished pallet and fork; sapphire pallet jewels and jewel pin; best quality Breguet hairspring; safety screw center pinion; Illinois superior mainspring; patent micrometrio screw regulator; recoiling click; concaved, polished and rayed winding wheels; screws are chamfered and slots cornered; double sunk glass enamel dial; plates and bridges have chamfered edges, are nicely finished and artistically damaskeened. The 19 jewel Bunn contains the Illinois Motor Barrel. The standard watches in 17 and 19 jewels for railway service. Ask your jeweler to ShO‘ZU you this watch. An extra fine thin model Illinois watch. It has 21 extra quality ruby and sapphire jewels and is adjusted to temperature, isochronism and to five positions. The Illini is a recent production of the Illinois Watch Com‐ pany and is cased and timed at the factory in solid gold cases especially designed for it. It is an exceptionally accurate and durable timekeeper and is as thin as a watch of this size should be made. Special Features Twenty-one (21), extra quality ruby and sapphire jewels. Special spring tempered compensating balance, having gold screws, including timing screws. Adjusted to temperature, five positions and isochronism. Breguet hairspring. Double roller escapement. Hardened and polished steel escape wheel. Patented Illinois superior motor barrel, both pivots of, barrel staff operating in sapphire jewels. Patented recoil bar and pinion click. Concaved and polished winding wheels. Perfect pendant setting mechanism of exceptional simplicity, entirely in movement. Snap bezel inlaid enamel fi g u r e d dial. Ask your jeweler to Show you this watch. A 12 size, 2.1 jewel watch that is popular with professional men everywhere. This model is smaller than those designed for railroad service but it is manufactured and adjusted with the same care and atten‐ tion for accuracy and durability. This movement is adjusted to five positions and can be obtained in a variety of solid gold and gold filled cases. Special Features Twenty-one ruby and sapphire jewels, gold settings; adjusted to temperature, five positions and isochronism; special quality-hardened and tempered compensating balance, with gold screws, including mean time screws; exposed double roller escapement; sapphire roller and pallet jewels; beveled steel escape wheel; entire escapement c a p jeweled; conical pivots; beveled and polished gold center wheel; patent micro‘ metric ‘screw regulator; best quality Breguet hairspring; patent safety screw center pinion; concaved, polished visible winding wheels; double. sunk dial; damaskeened in bright striped pattern; black enamel lettering. Ask your jeweler to show you this watch. A I7 jewel, 12 size Illinois watch we have no hesitation in recommending for young men. It is a beautifully constructed move‐ ment and is adjusted to heat and cold. Special Fealures Seventeen jewels; oreide settings: adjusted to temperature; spring tempered compensating balance w i t h t i m i n g screws; double roller escape‐ ment; hardened and polished steel escape wheel; sapphire pallets; sap‐ phire jewel pins; gold, beveled and polished center wheel; Breguet hair‐ spring; patent micrometric screw regulator; safety screw center pinion; perfect self-locking setting device; concaved and polished winding wheels; safety recoil click; beautifully damaskeened; engraved inlaid with gold. The Autocrat‐a special production of the Illinois Watch Company‐‐ is cased and timed at the factory in a variety of solid gold and gold filled cases. Ask your jeweler to show you this watch. BRACELET WATCHES You can always rely on an Illinois‐Springfield bracelet watch for women. These reliable timepieces are made in two grades, having 15 and 19 jewels respectively, and are cased in both solid gold and gold filled cases with corresponding bracelets. Special Features Fifteen and nineteen r u b y and sapphire jewels; compensating balance with mean time screws; steel escape wheel; double roller'escapement; Breguet hairspring; safety screw center pinion; polished winding wheels; damaskeened in a beautiful bright pattern; open face has second hand, but hunting is furnished without second hand. The demand for a high grade 11 ligne watch in regular and bracelet watches has been met in this Illinois-Springfield watch. Ask your jeweler to show you this watch.